WASH ROOM MAINTENANCE The word "washroom" is rarely used to mean "utility room" or "mud room" for washing hands. Washing one's hands, a form of hygiene, is the most effective way to prevent the spread of infectious diseases. The terms cleanliness and hygiene are often used interchangeably, which can cause confusion. In general, hygiene refers to practices that prevent spread of disease-causing organisms. Cleaning processes (e.g., handwashing) remove infectious microbes as well as dirt and soil, and are thus often the means to achieve hygiene. Hand hygiene is defined as handwashing or washing hands and nails with soap and water or using a waterless hand sanitizer. Hand hygiene is central to preventing spread of infectious diseases in home and everyday life settings. The World Health Organization recommends handwashing with ash if soap is not available in emergencies, schools without access to soap and other difficult situations like post-emergencies where use of (clean) sand is recommended, too. Use of ash is common in rural areas of developing countries and has in experiments been shown at least as effective as soap for removing pathogen